Compressed Sensing for Nondestructive Testing using Laser Thermography

Abstract

The nondestructive testing (NDT) of internal defects such as blowholes, inclusions or delaminations is of huge interest in industry. There are several ways to detect internal defects without destroying the specimen such as ultrasonic testing (UT) or radiographic testing (RT). UT is typically not contact-free and suffers from reconstruction accuracy if defects are not oriented perpendicular to the coupled ultrasound. In contrast, RT methods like computed tomography provide reliable and accurate results and are contact-free, but end up to be costly, slow, complex and only suitable ex-situ. Unlike UT and RT, active thermographic testing (TT) represents a contactless, simple, less expensive and in-situ suitable alternative by measuring the infrared (IR) radiation intensity of the specimen with IR cameras.

In active TT, light sources such as lasers can be used to generate heat in the specimen. The diffuse nature of heat propagation in the material causes a degradation in spatial resolution and therefore also in reconstruction accuracy. To solve this problem, various measurement and thermal image processing strategies were applied such as pulsed-phase thermography or lock-in thermography, making use of the relative amplitude or phase change to a reference area. A relatively new method to circumvent spatial heat blurring is the introduction of virtual waves, which increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the measured thermal images by transforming diffuse thermal waves into virtual propagating waves. Apart from that, so-called optical super resolution (SR) imaging - serving as an alternative measurement strategy to enhance the spatial resolution - gained attention in fields of structured illumination microscopy. These SR techniques rely on multiple measurements with a small position shift. The result is a spatial frequency mixing of the illuminated target pattern and the illumination pattern enabling an improve- ment in spatial resolution. Further, compressed sensing (CS) based algorithms can be used in post-processing which benefit from multiple measurements all referring to a reconstruction result that is sparse. Since defects are sparse in space, CS is highly attractive and applicable in NDT scenarios as well.

Cooperation with Samim Ahmadi and Mathias Ziegler, Thermografische Verfahren at BAM

Related Publications

  1. Linh Kastner, Samim Ahmadi, Florian Jonietz, Peter Jung, Giuseppe Caire, Mathias Ziegler and Jens Lambrecht, “Classification of Spot-welded Joints in Laser Thermography Data using Convolutional Neural Networks,” IEEE Access, pp. 1-1, oct 2021.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @article{Kastner:ieeeaccess2021,
      author = {Kastner, Linh and Ahmadi, Samim and Jonietz, Florian and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe and Ziegler, Mathias and Lambrecht, Jens},
      title = {Classification of Spot-welded Joints in Laser Thermography Data using Convolutional Neural Networks},
      journal = {IEEE Access},
      year = {2021},
      pages = {1--1},
      url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2010.12976 https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9367149/},
      doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3063672}
    }
    
  2. Samim Ahmadi, Linh Kästner, Jan Christian Hauffen, Peter Jung and Mathias Ziegler, “Photothermal-SR-Net: A Customized Deep Unfolding Neural Network for Photothermal Super Resolution Imaging,” apr 2021.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @article{Ahmadi2021,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Kästner, Linh and Hauffen, Jan Christian and Jung, Peter and Ziegler, Mathias},
      title = {Photothermal-SR-Net: A Customized Deep Unfolding Neural Network for Photothermal Super Resolution Imaging},
      year = {2021},
      url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2104.10563}
    }
    
  3. Samim Ahmadi, Gregor Thummerer, Stefan Breitwieser, G. Mayr, Julien Lecompagnon, Peter Burgholzer, Peter Jung, Giuseppe Caire and Mathias Ziegler, “Multi-dimensional reconstruction of internal defects in additively manufactured steel using photothermal super resolution combined with virtual wave based image processing,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, pp. 1-1, 2021.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @article{Ahmadi:TII:2020,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Thummerer, Gregor and Breitwieser, Stefan and Mayr, G. and Lecompagnon, Julien and Burgholzer, Peter and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe and Ziegler, Mathias},
      title = {Multi-dimensional reconstruction of internal defects in additively manufactured steel using photothermal super resolution combined with virtual wave based image processing},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics},
      year = {2021},
      pages = {1--1},
      url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9336334/},
      doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2021.3054411}
    }
    
  4. Samim Ahmadi, Jan Christian Hauffen, Linh Kästner, Peter Jung, Giuseppe Caire and Mathias Ziegler, “Learned Block Iterative Shrinkage Thresholding Algorithm for Photothermal Super Resolution Imaging,” dec 2020.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @article{Ahmadi2020,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Hauffen, Jan Christian and Kästner, Linh and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe and Ziegler, Mathias},
      title = {Learned Block Iterative Shrinkage Thresholding Algorithm for Photothermal Super Resolution Imaging},
      year = {2020},
      url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2012.03547}
    }
    
  5. Samim Ahmadi, Erik Thiel, Christina Karagianni, Philipp Hirsch, Mathias Ziegler, Peter Burgholzer, Günther Mayr, Peter Jung and Giuseppe Caire, “Photothermal Super Resolution Image Reconstruction Using Structured 1D Laser Illumination,” in SMSI 2020, - Sensors and Instrumentation, C4 IRSĀ² Satellite Conference: Infrared Sensor Applications: Non-destructive Testing, Spectroscopy, 2020.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @inproceedings{Ahmadi:SMSI:2020,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Thiel, Erik and Karagianni, Christina and Hirsch, Philipp and Ziegler, Mathias and Burgholzer, Peter and Mayr, Günther and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe},
      title = {Photothermal Super Resolution Image Reconstruction Using Structured 1D Laser Illumination},
      booktitle = {SMSI 2020, - Sensors and Instrumentation, C4 IRSĀ² Satellite Conference: Infrared Sensor Applications: Non-destructive Testing, Spectroscopy},
      year = {2020},
      url = {https://www.ama-science.org/proceedings/details/3695},
      doi = {http://doi.org/10.5162/SMSI2020/C4.1}
    }
    
  6. Samim Ahmadi, Peter Burgholzer, Günther Mayr, Peter Jung, Giuseppe Caire and M. Ziegler, “Photothermal super resolution imaging: A comparison of different thermographic reconstruction techniques,” NDT & E International, pp. 102228, feb 2020.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @article{Ahmadi:ndte20,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Burgholzer, Peter and Mayr, Günther and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe and Ziegler, M.},
      title = {Photothermal super resolution imaging: A comparison of different thermographic reconstruction techniques},
      journal = {NDT & E International},
      year = {2020},
      pages = {102228},
      url = {https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0963869519306541},
      doi = {http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2020.102228}
    }
    
  7. Udaya S. K. P. Miriya Thanthrige, Ali Kariminezhad, Peter Jung and Aydin Sezgin, “Defect Detection by MIMO Wireless Sensing based on Weighted Low-Rank plus Sparse Recovery,” oct 2020.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @article{Thanthrige2020,
      author = {Thanthrige, Udaya S. K. P. Miriya and Kariminezhad, Ali and Jung, Peter and Sezgin, Aydin},
      title = {Defect Detection by MIMO Wireless Sensing based on Weighted Low-Rank plus Sparse Recovery},
      year = {2020},
      url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2011.00278}
    }
    
  8. Samim Ahmadi, Peter Burgholzer, Günther Mayr, Peter Jung and Giuseppe Caire, “Photothermal super resolution imaging: A comparison of different reconstruction techniques,” in The 46th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference (QNDE), 2020.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @inproceedings{Ahmadi:QNDE2019:2,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Burgholzer, Peter and Mayr, Günther and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe},
      title = {Photothermal super resolution imaging: A comparison of different reconstruction techniques},
      booktitle = {The 46th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference (QNDE)},
      year = {2020},
      url = {https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-bam/frontdoor/index/index/year/2019/docId/48579}
    }
    
  9. Samim Ahmadi, Julien Lecompagnon, Philipp Daniel Hirsch, Peter Burgholzer, Peter Jung, Giuseppe Caire and Mathias Ziegler, “Laser excited super resolution thermal imaging for nondestructive inspection of internal defects,” Scientific Reports, jul 2020.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @article{Ahmadi:2020:LaserExcited,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Lecompagnon, Julien and Hirsch, Philipp Daniel and Burgholzer, Peter and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe and Ziegler, Mathias},
      title = {Laser excited super resolution thermal imaging for nondestructive inspection of internal defects},
      journal = {Scientific Reports},
      year = {2020},
      url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2007.03341}
    }
    
  10. Samim Ahmadi, Peter Burgholzer, Peter Jung, Giuseppe Caire and Mathias Ziegler, “Super resolution laser line scanning thermography,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, vol. 134, pp. 106279, nov 2020.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @article{Ahmad2020:opticsandlasers,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Burgholzer, Peter and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe and Ziegler, Mathias},
      title = {Super resolution laser line scanning thermography},
      journal = {Optics and Lasers in Engineering},
      year = {2020},
      volume = {134},
      pages = {106279},
      url = {https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0143816620306102},
      doi = {http://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2020.106279}
    }
    
  11. Samim Ahmadi, Erik Thiel, Philipp Hirsch, Christina Karagianni, Peter Burgholzer, Günther Mayr, Peter Jung and Giuseppe Caire, “A comparison of different techniques for photothermal super resolution image reconstruction,” in 20-th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP), 2019.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @inproceedings{Ahmadi:icppp19,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Thiel, Erik and Hirsch, Philipp and Karagianni, Christina and Burgholzer, Peter and Mayr, Günther and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe},
      title = {A comparison of different techniques for photothermal super resolution image reconstruction},
      booktitle = {20-th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP)},
      year = {2019},
      url = {https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-bam/frontdoor/index/index/searchtype/authorsearch/author/Samim+Ahmadi/docId/48592/start/2/rows/10}
    }
    
  12. Samim Ahmadi, Erik Thiel, Christina Karagianni, Philipp Hirsch, Mathias Ziegler, Peter Burgholzer, Günther Mayr, Peter Jung and Giuseppe Caire, “Photothermal Super Resolution Image Reconstruction Using Structured 1D Laser Illumination,” in The 46th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference (QNDE), 2019.
    [BibTeX] [URL]

    @inproceedings{Ahmadi:QNDE2019:1,
      author = {Ahmadi, Samim and Thiel, Erik and Karagianni, Christina and Hirsch, Philipp and Ziegler, Mathias and Burgholzer, Peter and Mayr, Günther and Jung, Peter and Caire, Giuseppe},
      title = {Photothermal Super Resolution Image Reconstruction Using Structured 1D Laser Illumination},
      booktitle = {The 46th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference (QNDE)},
      year = {2019},
      url = {https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-bam/frontdoor/index/index/year/2019/docId/48591 https://www.iastatedigitalpress.com/qnde/article/8593/galley/8077/download/}
    }